PANTOGRAPH

AN INSTRUMENT FOR COPYING DESIGNS ON AN IDENTICAL, REDUCED OR ENLARGED SCALE.
IN 1841, GEORGES-AUGUSTE LESCHOT BEGAN WORKING WITH A PANTOGRAPH AT VACHERON CONSTANTIN. IT USED A MATRIX OR PATTERN TO PUNCH-MARK AND MILL IDENTICAL WATCH PLATES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS INTERCHANGEABLE MOVEMENT PARTS.