A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • A

    A TACT WATCH

    1 REPEATER WATCH (SEE COMPLICATION) IN WHICH HAMMER AND BELL ARE REPLACED BY A SHARP PIN WHICH PROTRUDES FROM THE CASE TO PRICK THE FINGER ONCE FOR EACH HOUR.
    2 A TYPE OF WATCH MADE AFTER 1795 BY ABRAHAM LOUIS BREGUET TO GIVE TIME BY TOUCH. IN THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY IT WAS CONSIDERED IMPOLITE TO CONSULT ONE'S WATCH IN COMPANY, A QUESTION OF ETIQUETTE WHICH THE À TACT WATCH HELPED TO SOLVE (THE FRENCH TACT, MEANING TOUCH, HAS GIVEN THE ENGLISH TACT AND TACTFUL). KNOBS REPRESENTING THE HOURS ARE POSITIONED AROUND THE CASE WITH A LARGE HAND THAT COULD BE TURNED UNTIL IT MET RESISTANCE. ITS POSITION IN RELATION TO THE KNOBS GAVE THE TIME. THIS KIND OF TACTILE WATCH IS NOW MAINLY USED BY THE BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED.
  • AGATE

    A VARIETY OF THE QUARTZ GROUP THAT EXISTS IN MANY DIFFERENT COLOURS AND IS OPAQUE. THIS ORNAMENTAL GEMSTONE IS SOMETIMES USED FOR WATCH DIALS.
  • AGE OF THE MOON

    THE TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE NEW MOONS, SHOWN ON A WATCH DIAL FROM 1 TO 29½ DAYS, CORRESPONDING TO THE PERIOD OF LUNAR REVOLUTION AROUND THE EARTH.
  • ALARM

    A POCKET WATCH, WRISTWATCH OR CLOCK THAT AUTOMATICALLY SOUNDS AT A PRESET TIME. THE ALARM FUNCTION REGAINED IN POPULARITY WITH THE LAUNCH, BY ETERNA IN 1908, OF A WRISTWATCH WITH ALARM.
  • AMPLITUDE

    THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO EXTREME POINTS OF A MOVEMENT OR PERIODIC PHENOMENON (A ANGLE).
  • ANALOGUE

    AN ANALOGUE WATCH DISPLAYS TIME BY MEANS OF HANDS AND A DIAL (AS OPPOSED TO DIGITAL OR ALPHANUMERICAL).
  • APERTURE

    A SMALL OPENING IN THE DIAL.
    IN AN APERTURE WATCH, VARIOUS INDICATIONS SUCH AS THE MONTH, MOON PHASE, DAY, DATE, HOUR, MINUTE, ETC. ARE VISIBLE THROUGH THESE OPENINGS.
    A SMALL OPENING IN THE DIAL.
    IN AN APERTURE WATCH, VARIOUS INDICATIONS SUCH AS THE MONTH, MOON PHASE, DAY, DATE, HOUR, MINUTE, ETC. ARE VISIBLE THROUGH THESE OPENINGS.
  • APPLIED CHAPTER

    THE HOUR NUMERALS OR DECORATIONS THAT ARE CUT FROM SHEETS OF METAL THEN AFFIXED TO THE DIAL.
  • ARABIC NUMERALS

    1, 2, 3, ETC. ARABIC NUMERALS, WHICH WERE WIDELY USED ON WATCH DIALS TOWARDS THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, ALLOW GREATER SCOPE FOR FANTASY THAN THEIR ROMAN COUNTERPARTS. THE MAJORITY OF FINE-QUALITY WATCH COMPANIES USE BOTH ARABIC AND ROMAN NUMERALS WITHOUT DISTINCTION.
  • ASSORTIMENT

    FRENCH TERM FOR THE THREE PARTS OF THE ESCAPEMENT (ESCAPE-WHEEL, LEVER AND ROLLER).
    GENERALLY, SPECIALIST COMPANIES SUPPLY WATCHMAKERS WITH THE LEVER ASSORTMENT.
  • B

    BACK

    IN A WATCH CASE, THE COVER, TRANSPARENT OR NOT, OPPOSITE THE DIAL.
  • BAGUETTE

    THE CUT OF A GEMSTONE STONE THAT HAS BEEN CUT INTO A LONG, RECTANGULAR SHAPE. THE WORD BAGUETTE MEANS "STICK" OR "ROD" IN FRENCH.
  • BALANCE

    A CIRCULAR, MOVING PART WHICH OSCILLATES ON ITS ROTATIONAL AXIS. IT IS COUPLED TO THE BALANCE-SPRING WHICH GIVES IT THE TO-AND-FRO MOTION THROUGH WHICH IT DIVIDES TIME INTO STRICTLY EQUAL PARTS. EACH TO-AND-FRO MOVEMENT ("TICK-TOCK") IS CALLED AN OSCILLATION, AND EACH OSCILLATION COMPRISES TWO VIBRATIONS.
    A CIRCULAR MASS (RIM) HELD BY SPOKES. COMBINED WITH THE SPIRAL IT FORMS THE REGULATING ORGAN OF THE WATCH.
  • BALANCE COCK (MODERN)

    A BRIDGE WITH A LUG ANCHORED TO A STUD. AN INDEX (OR REGULATOR) PASSES OVER A SCALE INDICATING FAST SLOW IN ENGLISH, AVANCE RETARD IN FRENCH.
  • BARREL


    A CYLINDRICAL BOX (THE BARREL) AND TOOTHED DISC (WHEEL), PROTECTED BY A COVER. THE BARREL, WHICH CONTAINS THE MAINSPRING, TURNS FREELY ON ITS ARBOR. THE MAINSPRING IS HOOKED TO THE BARREL AT ITS OUTER EXTREMITY AND TO THE ARBOR AT ITS INNER EXTREMITY. THE BARREL WHEEL MESHES WITH THE FIRST PINION OF THE GEARTRAIN. AS IT SLOWLY ROTATES, ITS ARC VARIES FROM ONE-NINTH TO ONE-SIXTH OF A REVOLUTION PER HOUR. A HANGING BARREL (ALSO KNOWN AS A STANDING BARREL OR FLOATING BARREL) IS ONE WHOSE ARBOR IS SUPPORTED AT THE UPPER END ONLY, BEING ATTACHED TO THE BARREL BRIDGE WITH NO SUPPORT FROM THE LOWER PLATE.
    A PLAIN BARREL, USED IN FUSEE WATCHES, HAS NO TEETH.
    CATGUT, THEN A CHAIN, IS COILED ROUND THE PLAIN BARREL, CONNECTING IT TO THE FUSEE.
  • BARREL ARBOR


    SUPPORTS THE BARREL AND ITS SPRING. IT COMPRISES A CYLINDER, KNOWN AS THE CORE, AND A HOOK TO WHICH THE INNER END OF THE MAINSPRING IS ATTACHED. THE UPPER PIVOT IS CUT INTO A SQUARE FOR THE RATCHET-WHEEL. THE ARBOR MOVES IN HOLES, ONE IN THE PLATE AND THE OTHER IN THE BARREL BRIDGE.
  • BEARING

    A HOLE MADE DIRECTLY IN THE BRASS PLATE AND IN WHICH A STEEL PIVOT, PART OF THE GREATRAIN OR ESCAPEMENT, TURNS. THE PROBLEMS OF FRICTION THIS CAUSED WERE SOLVED WHEN NICOLAS FATIO HAD THE IDEA TO USE DRILLED NATURAL RUBIES AS BEARINGS. THESE NATURAL STONES WERE LATER REPLACED BY SYNTHETIC RUBIES, MADE IN 1892 BY AUGUSTE VERNEUIL.
  • BELL


    A SMALL, FLATTENED BELL IN A CLOCK, WATCH OR ALARM THAT IS STRUCK WITH A HAMMER. IN A REPEATER-WATCH, BELLS ARE REPLACED BY GONGS WHICH ARE STRIPS OF TEMPERED STEEL, FIRMLY SECURED AT ONE END. THE HOURS ARE STRUCK ON A LOW NOTE; THE QUARTER-HOUR IS STRUCK ON TWO NOTES, ONE LOW AND ONE HIGH.
    A CHIME USES THREE NOTES.
  • BENCH

    A GENERAL TERM FOR A SOLID WORKBENCH USED BY VARIOUS PROFESSIONS. THE WATCHMAKER'S BENCH INCLUDES DRAWERS FOR THE WATCHMAKER TO KEEP THE DIFFERENT TOOLS. THESE DRAWERS FORM A CABINET WHICH CAN BE SEPARATE FROM THE BENCH ITSELF.
    EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CABINET-MAKERS USED THEIR TALENT TO CREATE LUXURIOUS BENCHES THAT WERE A FOCAL POINT OF FAMOUS WATCHMAKERS' SHOPS.
    TODAY'S BENCHES ARE ERGONOMICALLY DESIGNED AND ADAPTED TO THE WATCHMAKER'S DIFFERENT TASKS, SUCH AS ASSEMBLY AND REPAIRS.
  • BERYL

    A FAMILY OF STONES THAT SHARE THE SAME CRYSTALLINE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. VARIETIES INCLUDE THE EMERALD AND THE AQUAMARINE.
  • C

    CABINET

    A SMALL WORKSHOP IN EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH-CENTURY GENEVA, ON THE TOP FLOOR OF A HOUSE WHERE THERE WAS THE MOST NATURAL LIGHT.
  • CABOCHON

    A POLISHED PRECIOUS OR FINE STONE CUT INTO A DOME AND WITHOUT FACETS.
    USED TO DECORATE A WATCH DIAL AND SOMETIMES THE CROWN.
  • CALIBRE

    SYNONYM OF SIZE. SULLY USED THIS TERM CIRCA 1715 TO DENOTE THE LAYOUT AND DIMENSIONS OF THE DIFFERENT MOVEMENT PILLARS, WHEELS, BARREL, ETC. SINCE THEN "CALIBRE" HAS BEEN USED TO INDICATE THE SHAPE OF THE MOVEMENT, ITS BRIDGES, THE ORIGIN OF THE WATCH, ITS MAKER'S NAME, ETC.
    NOW DESIGNATES THE MOVEMENT ITSELF.
    THE ROUND CALIBRE IS THE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED. IT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF ITS CASING DIAMETER, MEASURED IN LIGNES OR MILLIMETRES, FOR EXAMPLE A 10''' / 22.5 MM ROUND CALIBRE. THE SHAPE AND LAYOUT OF THE BRIDGES IS USED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN A BRIDGE CALIBRE, IN WHICH EACH PART OF THE TRAIN HAS A BRIDGE, THE REVOLVER CALIBRE, WHOSE BARREL BRIDGE BEARS A SLIGHT RESEMBLANCE TO A PISTOL, THE CURVED BRIDGE CALIBRE, WHERE THE BRIDGES CURVE TOWARDS THE CENTRE OF THE MOVEMENT, AND THE THREE-QUARTER-PLATE CALIBRE IN WHICH THE ENTIRE TRAIN EXCEPT FOR THE ESCAPE-WHEEL IS FITTED UNDER A BRIDGE THAT COVERS SOME THREE-QUARTERS OF THE MOVEMENT.
  • CANARY DIAMOND

    DIAMONDS THAT HAVE A DEEP NATURAL YELLOW COLOUR.
  • CARAT

    WHEN ABBREVIATED (CT.) A CARAT IS A STANDARD UNIT OF WEIGHT USED FOR GEMSTONES.
    1 CARAT WEIGHS 0.2 GRAM (1/5 OF A GRAM). 
    A HUNDREDTH OF A CARAT IS CALLED A POINT.
  • CARBONADO

    CARBONARDO IS A RARE TYPE OF OPAQUE BLACK DIAMOND USED FOR DRILLING BITS AND ABRASIVE WHEELS. UNLIKE OTHER DIAMONDS, CARBONADOES ARE NOT FOUND IN A CRYSTALLIZED FORM - THEY ARE FOUND IN IRREGULAR OR ROUNDED FRAGMENTS. THESE DIAMONDS HAVE A VERY HARD POLYCRYSTALLINE CARBON STRUCTURE..
    TODAY, IT IS ALSO USED IN JEWELLERY.
  • CASE


    CONTAINER THAT PROTECTS THE WATCH MOVEMENT FROM DUST, DAMP AND KNOCKS.
    THE CASE IS PART OF THE WATCH'S APPEARANCE AND, INFLUENCED BY FASHIONS AND BUYERS' PERSONAL TASTE, MUST HAVE VISUAL APPEAL.
    THE MAIN PARTS OF A LÉPINE POCKET WATCH CASE ARE THE MIDDLE, INSIDE WHICH THE MOVEMENT IS SECURED, AND THE CASEBAND. ON THE BRIDGE SIDE, THE MIDDLE OF THE CASE IS CLOSED BY THE BACK COVER (SOMETIMES WITH A SECOND COVER INSIDE CALLED A CUVETTE). ON THE DIAL SIDE IT IS CLOSED BY THE BEZEL THAT SECURES THE GLASS.
    THE MOST COMMON CASE SHAPES ARE:
    ROUND
    SQUARE
    TONNEAU
  • CHAMFER (BEVEL)


    TO FORM A FLAT SURFACE BY HAND-FILING THE SHARP EDGE OF A BRIDGE, PLATE, SCREW HEAD, ETC. CHAMFERING IS A DISTINGUISHING FEATURE OF A SUPERIOR QUALITY WATCH.
  • CHAMPLEVÉ(E)

    DESCRIBES A METAL SURFACE THAT HAS BEEN HOLLOWED USING A GRAVER TO FORM CELLS THAT WILL BE FILLED WITH ENAMEL.
  • CHRONOGRAPH

    A WATCH INDICATING HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS COMBINED WITH A MECHANISM WHOSE HAND CAN BE STARTED, STOPPED AND RETURNED TO ZERO ON DEMAND TO MEASURE A DURATION TO ONE FIFTH, TENTH OR EVEN HUNDREDTH OF A SECOND. SUBCOUNTERS FOR THE MINUTES AND HOURS (USUALLY 30 MINUTES AND 12 HOURS) TOTALISE THE NUMBER OF REVOLUTIONS BY THE CHRONOGRAPH HAND. THE ACCURACY OF THESE RECORDED TIMES CAN ONLY BE GUARANTEED IF THE CHRONOGRAPH HAS SATISFIED THE CRITERIA OF THE "CHRONOMETER" LABEL.
  • D

    DATE

    THE NUMBER, IN ORDER, OF EACH DAY IN THE MONTH.

  • DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME

    LEGAL TIME IN CERTAIN COUNTRIES THAT IS ONE HOUR AHEAD OF WINTER TIME, ITSELF ONE HOUR AHEAD OF SOLAR TIME.
  • DECIMAL (REVOLUTIONARY) (REPUBLICAN)

    A WATCH OR CLOCK DIAL MADE IN 1793, AFTER THE FRENCH REVOLUTION WHICH IMPOSED THE DECIMAL CALENDAR. THE YEAR WAS DIVIDED INTO 12 MONTHS AND EACH MONTH INTO THREE 10-DAY PERIODS KNOWN AS DÉCADES. THE DAY WAS DIVIDED INTO 10 HOURS AND EACH HOUR INTO 100 MINUTES. THE DECIMAL OR REPUBLICAN DIAL WAS THEREFORE GRADUATED FROM 1 TO 10. NEVER ACCEPTED, MANUFACTURE OF THESE DIALS CEASED IN 1795.
  • DEMANTOID GARNET

    A VALUABLE YELLOWISH GREEN, VERY LUSTROUS AND RARE VARIETY OF THE GARNET GROUP.
  • DIAMOND


    DIAMOND IS THE HARDEST AND MOST LUMINOUS PRECIOUS STONE. THE PRICE OF A DIAMOND IS CALCULATED ACCORDING TO THE 4C CRITERIA: CUT - CARAT - CLARITY - COLOR. THE WEIGHT OF A DIAMOND IS EXPRESSED IN CARAT: 1 CARAT IS EQUAL TO 0.20 GRAM. PURE COLOURLESS CARBON, IN JEWELLERY THE DIAMOND IS CUT INTO FACETS TO INCREASE ITS SPARKLE. IN WATCHMAKING IT IS USED TO DECORATE STRAPS, CASES, BEZELS, ETC.
    TODAY, THE FINE WATCHMAKING AND FINE JEWELLERY'S BRANDS PURCHASE DIAMONDS IN LINE WITH THE CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS AND THE ASSOCIATED GUARANTEE SYSTEMS SET UP TO PUT AN END TO “WAR DIAMOND” TRADE.
  • DICHROISM

    THE PROPERTY OF CERTAIN GEMSTONES THAT SHOW MORE THAN ONE SHADE OF COLOUR WHEN VIEWED FROM DIFFERENT ANGLES. MANY GEMSTONES, FOR EXAMPLE RUBIES, SAPPHIRES AND TOURMALINE, ARE NATURALLY DICHROIC.
  • DIFFUSION TREATED

    A TREATMENT USED ON GEMSTONES TO ENHANCE THEIR COLOUR. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS ONLY COLOURS THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE STONE, THE CIBJO PROHIBITS THE SALE OF DIFFUSION TREATED GEMSTONES WITHOUT MENTIONING THE TREATMENT.
  • DISC

    A FLAT, THIN, ROUND PLATE. THE CALENDAR DISC ROTATES UNDER THE DIAL; ITS INDICATIONS ARE SHOWN THROUGH AN APERTURE. OTHER DISCS DISPLAY THE DAY, MONTH OR MOON PHASE.
  • DIVIDING HEAD (DIVISION PLATE)


    A DISC WITH EVENLY SPACED NOTCHES AROUND ITS CIRCUMFERENCE FOR DIVIDING THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF GEARS PRIOR TO CUTTING THE REQUIRED NUMBER OF TEETH.
  • DUAL TIME ZONE

    DESCRIBES A WATCH THAT SIMULTANEOUSLY GIVES THE TIME IN TWO TIME ZONES, USUALLY LOCAL AND THE WEARER'S HOME.
  • E

    EMERALD

    THE SATURATED GREEN VARIETY OF THE BERYL FAMILY. ITS COLOUR IS DUE TO MINUTE TRACES OF CHROMIUM OR SOMETIMES VANADIUM. INCLUSIONS IN EMERALD ARE CALLED JARDINS FROM THE FRENCH WORD FOR GARDEN. EMERALDS HAVE A HARDNESS OF 7-8 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 2.6 - 2.8.
  • EMERALD CUT

    A GEMSTONE CUT THAT IS RECTANGULAR WITH TRUNCATED CORNERS. THE NAME COMES FROM THE BEST QUALITY EMERALDS THAT ARE CUT IN THIS SHAPE. DESPITE ITS NAME, ANY GEMSTONE CAN BE CUT INTO AN EMERALD CUT.
  • ENAMEL

    A VITREOUS SUBSTANCE WHOSE MAIN COMPONENT IS SILICA MIXED WITH OXIDES (TRANSITION METALS) THAT CREATE A VAST PALETTE OF COLOURS. ENAMEL IS USED TO DECORATE METAL SURFACES, IN PARTICULAR GOLD, SILVER AND COPPER.
    TRANSLUCENT ENAMEL ALLOWS THE PASSAGE OF MORE OR LESS LIGHT, FOR EXAMPLE THE OPALESCENT ENAMELS THAT GIVE A SOUGHT-AFTER MILKY QUALITY TO CERTAIN PIECES.
    CHAMPLEVÉ ENAMEL
    CLOISONNÉ ENAMEL
    PAINTING ON ENAMEL
  • ENAMELLIST

    A PERSON WHO CREATES ENAMELWORK.
  • ENAMELWORK

    THE FLAT SURFACE OF A CUT GEMSTONE.
  • ENGINE-TURNING (GUILLOCHÉ)

    A STYLE OF HAND OR MACHINE ENGRAVING WITH INTERSECTING WAVY OR STRAIGHT LINES. WHEN THE PIECE IS MOVED HORIZONTALLY OR VERTICALLY AGAINST THE TOOL, THE FINISHED EFFECT IS GUILLOCHÉ, COMPARED WITH FLINQUÉ OR FLINKING WHICH FOLLOWS A RADIAL MOVEMENT.
  • EQUATION OF TIME

    THE EQUATION OF TIME IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUE SOLAR TIME AND MEAN TIME. TRUE SOLAR TIME, GIVEN BY SUNDIALS, VARIES FROM DAY TO DAY BECAUSE OF THE EARTH'S ELLIPTICAL ORBIT, AND ACCORDING TO THE LONGITUDE OF THE POINT OF OBSERVATION.
    MEAN TIME, GIVEN BY WATCHES, IGNORES THESE VARIATIONS AND FOR EVERY DAY OF THE YEAR MATHEMATICALLY DIVIDES TIME INTO EQUAL HOURS. FOUR TIMES A YEAR, ON APRIL 15TH, JUNE 14TH, SEPTEMBER 1ST AND DECEMBER 24TH, TRUE SOLAR TIME AND MEAN TIME COINCIDE. ON THE OTHER DAYS, THE DIFFERENCE RANGES FROM MINUS 16 MINUTES AND 23 SECONDS ON NOVEMBER 4TH, TO PLUS 14 MINUTES AND 22 SECONDS ON FEBRUARY 11TH.
    IN 2000, AUDEMARS PIGUET UNVEILED AN EQUATION OF TIME WATCH WHICH COMBINES THE EQUATION OF TIME, SUNRISE, SUNSET AND PERPETUAL CALENDAR. THE EQUATION OF TIME HAND CLEARLY INDICATES THIS DAILY DIFFERENCE.
  • ESCAPEMENT

    A MECHANISM THAT IS FITTED BETWEEN THE GEARS AND THE REGULATING ORGAN. ITS FUNCTION IS TO SUSPEND THE GEARS' MOTION AT REGULAR INTERVALS AND TO SUPPLY ENERGY TO THE BALANCE.
    THE MAIN TYPES OF WATCH ESCAPEMENT ARE:
    • RECOIL ESCAPEMENTS (VERGE OR CROWN WHEEL)
    • DEAD-BEAT ESCAPEMENTS (CYLINDER, VIRGULE, DOUBLE VIRGULE)
    • DETACHED ESCAPEMENTS (LEVER, DETENT)
    THE LEVER ESCAPEMENT IS BY FAR THE MOST COMMON TODAY. EXCEPTIONAL WATCHES MAY BE FITTED WITH A DIFFERENT KIND, OFTEN A DETENT OR VIRGULE ESCAPEMENT. IN TERMS OF ESCAPEMENTS, ONE CAN HISTORICALLY SPEAK OF THE LEVER AND INDEED THE SWISS LEVER TYPE, GIVEN THAT THE SWISS LEVER ESCAPEMENT IS THE MOST WIDELY USED TODAY BECAUSE IT IS ESPECIALLY SUITED TO WATCHES AND CHRONOMETERS.
  • EUROPEAN CUT , MINE CUT OR CUSHION CUT

    ALSO KNOWN AS THE OLD EUROPEAN CUT IS AN OLD, ROUND BRILLIANT CUT WITH A VERY SMALL TABLE AND HEAVY CROWN.
  • F

    FACET


    THE FLAT SURFACE OF A CUT GEMSTONE.
  • FACETING

    THE CUTTING AND POLISHING OF THE FLAT SURFACES OF A GEM.
  • FANCY CUT

    FANCY CUT STONES ARE CUT IN ANY FORM OTHER THAN A BRILLIANT CUT. SOME FANCY CUTS INCLUDE THE HEART, OVAL, MARQUISE, NAVETTE, KITE, AND TRIANGLE.
  • FANCY DIAMONDS

    RARE DIAMONDS WHICH ARE NATURALLY RED, BLUE, GREEN, OR PURPLE. THEIR PRICE MAINLY DEPENDS ON THE SATURATION AND QUALITY OF COLOUR.
  • FEATHER


    AN INCLUSION RESEMBLING A FEATHER THAT CAN START AT THE SURFACE OF THE STONE AND EXTEND DEEP INSIDE.
  • FINE STONE

    THE NAME GIVEN TO A NON-PRECIOUS STONE. THE TERM "SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE" IS NO LONGER USED.
    AQUAMARINE 
    AMETHYST 
    CITRINE 
    CORDIERITE 
    PERIDOT 
    TANZANITE 
    TOPAZ 
    TOURMALINE
  • FLINQUÉ


    ENGRAVING DONE BY HAND USING A GRAVER OR BY MACHINE USING A ROSE-ENGINE AND COMPRISING INTERSECTING STRAIGHT OR WAVY LINES. THE TOOL IS ALWAYS MOVED CONCENTRICALLY.
  • FLIRT (INDEPENDENT SECONDS)

    A SMALL ROD, DRIVEN BY A SEPARATE TRAIN, WHOSE END MESHES WITH THE ESCAPE-PINION'S LEAVES. THE FLIRT IS RELEASED EVERY SECOND AND MAKES ONE COMPLETE REVOLUTION. THIS MOVEMENT IS TRANSFERRED TO THE SECONDS HAND WHICH ADVANCES BY ONE INCREMENT PER SECOND.
  • FLUORESCENCE

    THE ABILITY OF CERTAIN GEMSTONES TO TRANSFORM INVISIBLE LIGHT (ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT) INTO VISIBLE LIGHT. FLUORITE IS SUCH A MINERAL.
  • FOLDING BUCKLE

    AN ARTICULATED BUCKLE THAT UNFOLDS WHEN OPENED. SHOULD THE BUCKLE ACCIDENTALLY COME OPEN, IT WILL STILL HOLD THE STRAP SUFFICIENTLY IN PLACE TO PREVENT THE WATCH FROM SLIPPING OFF THE WRIST.
  • G

    GEAR TRAIN

    A SYSTEM FOR TRANSMITTING POWER AND MOTION THROUGH TOOTHED WHEELS. IN A WATCH, THE TRAIN COMPRISES A WHEEL WHOSE TEETH MESH WITH A PINION'S LEAVES.
  • GEMMOLOGY

    THE STUDY OF PRECIOUS STONES.
  • GEMSTONE

    A GEMSTONE (ALSO CALLED A PRECIOUS STONE) IS A MINERAL THAT IS RARE, DURABLE AND BEAUTIFUL. A FEW ORGANIC MATERIALS, LIKE AMBER, CORAL AND PEARLS ARE ALSO CONSIDERED GEMSTONES.
  • GIA

    GEMOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA.
  • GIRDLE

    THE GIRDLE IS THE WIDEST PERIMETER OF A GEMSTONE THAT SEPARATES THE TOP (CROWN) AND THE BOTTOM (PAVILION) OF A CUT GEM.
  • GOLD

    GOLD HAS SEDUCED THE WORLD WITH ITS BEAUTY, BUT ALSO BECAUSE NOT EVEN ACID CAN ALTER ITS NATURAL PROPERTIES. AN ESTIMATED 130,000 TONS HAVE BEEN EXTRACTED FROM THE EARTH SINCE PREHISTORIC TIMES, OF WHICH 100,000 TONS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ALONE. GOLD IS A MALLEABLE SUBSTANCE (WITH A HARDNESS OF JUST 2.5) AND THEREFORE EASY TO WORK WITH. IT CAN BE USED IN AN ALLOY WITH OTHER METALS, OFTEN SILVER AND COPPER. THESE ALLOYS INCREASE ITS RESISTANCE AND CHANGE ITS COLOUR.
    CONTAINS: FOR 750 GOLD, APPROXIMATELY:
    YELLOW GOLD: 12.5% SILVER - 75% PURE GOLD - 12.5% COPPER
    PINK GOLD: 6% SILVER - 19% COPPER - 60% PURE GOLD - 10% PALLADIUM - 5% NICKEL
    RED GOLD: 5.5 % COPPER - 94.5% PURE GOLD
    WHITE GOLD: 10% COPPER - 10% PALLADIUM - 5% NICKEL - 75% PURE GOLD
    BLUE GOLD: AN ALLOY OF GOLD AND IRON. HEAT TREATMENT OXIDIZES THE IRON MOLECULES AT THE SURFACE OF THE METAL, PRODUCING THE BLUE COLOUR.
    GREEN GOLD: AN ALLOY OF GOLD, SILVER AND COPPER.
    BLACK GOLD: OBTAINED BY MEANS OF CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION (SIMILAR TO PVD) OF ATOMS OF GOLD, CARBON AND OTHER METALS. THE BLACK COATING IS JUST A FEW MICRONS THICK. OTHER SURFACE TREATMENTS USE ELECTRODEPOSITION OF RHODIUM, CHROMIUM AND VERY DARK IMPURITIES.
    Brown gold: obtained by heat treatment.
  • GOLDSMITH

    A CRAFTSMAN WHO PRODUCES DECORATIVE OBJECTS IN PRECIOUS METALS, AS WELL AS IN PEWTER AND COPPER.
  • GONG

    IN A MOVEMENT AND STRUCK BY HAMMERS. GONGS REPLACED BELLS IN STRIKING WATCHES IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY, ALLOWING FOR MUCH SLIMMER WATCHES.
  • GOVERNOR

    A DEVICE FOR SLOWING AND REGULATING MOTION.
    IN STRIKING CLOCKS AND WATCHES, THE FLY WHEEL HAS VANES WHICH REGULATE THE SPEED OF THE STRIKING TRAIN. THE SAME RESULT IS ACHIEVED BY A CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR OR BY THE ESCAPEMENT: A LEVER ESCAPEMENT FOR CERTAIN STRIKING MECHANISMS (INVENTED BY JULIEN LE ROY IN 1755); A VERGE ESCAPEMENT FOR ALARMS.
  • H

    HAND

    A VARIOUSLY SHAPED INDICATOR MADE FROM A THIN PIECE OF LIGHTWEIGHT METAL AND WHICH MOVES ROUND A DIAL, WITH OR WITHOUT GRADUATIONS. MOST WATCHES HAVE THREE HANDS, ONE EACH FOR THE HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS. EARLY WATCHES ONLY HAD ONE HAND, FOR THE HOURS.
    THE ENGLISH WATCHMAKER DANIEL QUARE.
    CIRCA 1764, WATCHMAKERS BEGAN USING A HAMMER AND PUNCH TO STAMP HANDS FROM A SHEET OF METAL. LATER, IN AROUND 1800, THEY WERE FORMED USING A PRESS AND WERE OFTEN DECORATED WITH PRECIOUS OR IMITATION STONES.
    THE MOST COMMON FORMS ARE:
    BATON
    DAUPHINE
    FEUILLE
    SWORD
    SPADE
    POIRE
    BREGUET OR MOON
    SKELETON
  • HARDNESS


    THE RESISTANCE OF A MATERIAL TO SCRATCHING AND WEAR. HARDNESS IS MEASURED USING THE MOH'S SCALE. THIS SCALE INDICATES THAT ONE SUBSTANCE CAN SCRATCH THE SUBSTANCE BELOW IT AND SCRATCH ITSELF. FOR EXAMPLE, A DIAMOND (10) WILL SCRATCH RUBY (9) AND ITS SELF, BUT NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND, SO A DIAMOND IS HARDER.
  • HEART-SHAPED

    A TYPE OF BRILLIANT CUT THAT IS PERFECT FOR ROMANTIC AND SPECIAL OCCASIONS. CORRECTLY EXECUTED, A HEART-SHAPED DIAMOND HAS GOOD FIRE AND BRILLIANCE. IT HAS 54 FACETS AND A CULET.
  • HELIOTROPE

    HELIOTROPE IS ALSO KNOWN AS BLOODSTONE. IT IS A VARIETY OF CHALCEDONY THAT IS DARK GREEN WITH RED SPECKS. HELIOTROPE IS USED AS WATCH DIALS.
  • HEMATITE

    A NATURAL IRON OXIDE THAT IS A METALLIC DARK TO SILVER-GREY WITH A HIGH SHEEN. HEMATITE CAN BE USED TO MAKE WATCH DIALS. IT HAS A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 4.95 TO 5.16 AND A HARDNESS OF 6.5 ON THE MOHS SCALE.
  • HESSONITE

    A BROWN TO ORANGE GEMSTONE VARIETY OF GROSSULAR GARNET. THIS TRANSPARENT STONE HAS A HARDNESS OF 6.5 - 7 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 3.6. THIS STONE IS NOT ENHANCED.
  • HORN

    THAT PART OF A WATCH CASE TO WHICH THE STRAP IS ATTACHED. HORNS COME IN VARIOUS SHAPES AND ARE ATTACHED TO THE CASE MIDDLE.
  • HOUR-WHEEL

    THE WHEEL THAT CARRIES THE HOUR HAND.
  • HUNTER

    A WATCH WHOSE CASE HAS A FRONT AND BACK COVER.
  • I

    INCLUSION

    AN INCLUSION IS A PARTICLE OF FOREIGN MATTER FOUND WITHIN A GEMSTONE. INCLUSIONS CAN BE ANOTHER MINERAL, A LIQUID OR A GAS. INCLUSIONS DECREASE THE VALUE OF A DIAMOND WHEN VISIBLE WITH A 10X LOUPE, BUT ARE A MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION IN RUBY, SAPPHIRE AND EMERALD IN ORDER TO SEPARATE SYNTHETIC STONES FROM NATURAL ONES.
  • INDEPENDENT SECONDS

    A LARGE HAND IN THE CENTRE OF THE DIAL, DRIVEN BY A SEPARATE TRAIN TO THE HOURS AND MINUTES, AND MAKING ONE JUMP FORWARD EVERY SECOND.
  • INDEX (REGULATOR)

    A DEVICE FOR ADJUSTING A WATCH'S RATE BY INCREASING OR REDUCING THE EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF THE BALANCE SPRING. THE INDEX IS A STEEL LEVER, THE SHORTER END OF WHICH CARRIES THE CURB PINS WHICH EMBRACE THE SPRING, AND THE LONGER END OF WHICH PASSES OVER A SCALE MARKED IN FRENCH A AND R (AVANCE AND RETARD) OR IN ENGLISH F AND S (FAST AND SLOW). THE INDEX IS FRICTION-FITTED ON THE BALANCE'S ENDPIECE. THE WATCH IS REGULATED BY MOVING THE INDEX FORWARDS; THE RESULT OF THIS CAN BE GAUGED FROM THE GRADUATIONS ON THE BALANCE COCK.
  • INDICATOR

    A WATCH'S INDICATORS ARE ITS DIAL AND HANDS.
  • INERTIA BLOCK

    SMALL PIECES OF METAL PLACED ON THE BALANCE OF THE WATCHES TO REGULATE VARIATION IN RATE IN THE ABSENCE OF AN INDEX, IN PARTICULAR FOR CHRONOMETERS.
    A SMALL PIECE OF METAL WHOSE INERTIA SLOWS OR ACCELERATES THE MOVEMENT OF THE BALANCE.
  • INVERTED CALIBRE

    CALIBRE WHOSE DIAL IS ON THE SIDE WITH THE BRIDGES AND GEARTRAIN RATHER THAN ON THE BOTTOM-PLATE SIDE
  • IOLITE

    IOLITE IS A TRANSPARENT, VIOLET-BLUE, LIGHT BLUE, OR YELLOW-GRAY MINERAL. IOLITE IS PLEOCHROIC; A SINGLE STONE WILL SHOW UP TO 3 COLOURS (IN THIS CASE VIOLET-BLUE, LIGHT BLUE, AND YELLOW-GRAY). IOLITE HAS A HARDNESS OF 7 - 7.5 AND IS FOUND IN SRI LANKA, INDIA, MADAGASCAR AND MYANMAR (BURMA).
  • IRIDESCENCE

    THE SPECTRAL COLOURS SEEN ON CERTAIN GEMS DUE TO INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT. MOTHER OF PEARL, USED FOR WATCH DIALS IS IRIDESCENT.
  • IRRADIATED (TREATED) DIAMONDS

    DIAMONDS THAT HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO RADIATION IN ORDER TO CHANGE THEIR COLOUR FROM YELLOWISH TO FANCY YELLOW OR BLUE. THE CHANGE IS PERMANENT.
  • IRRADIATION

    THE TREATMENT OF CERTAIN GEMSTONES BY RADIATION TO CHANGE OR ENHANCE THEIR COLOUR. BLUE TOPAZ IS OFTEN IRRADIATED TO BRING OUT THE BLUE OF THE GEMSTONE.
  • J

    JADE

    JADE IS A GEM GROUP WITH JADEITE AND NEPHRITE AS THE TWO VARIETIES. JADEITE IS THE VARIETY THAT RANGES IN COLOUR FROM GREEN TO WHITE TO LILAC TO BROWN TO ALMOST BLACK. NEPHRITE, THE MORE ANCIENT GEMSTONE IS USUALLY GREEN WITH BLACK INCLUSIONS OF WHITE. JADEITE IS THE HARDER OF THE TWO. NEPHRITE IS SLIGHTLY SOFTER AND IS OFTEN VEINED; IT IS USED IN CARVINGS, FOR MAKING BEAUTIFUL BOWLS AND VASES.
  • JASPER

    AN OPAQUE, ORNAMENTAL STONE FOUND IN MANY COLOURS, INCLUDING WHITE, BROWN, YELLOW, RED, AND GREEN. IT IS OFTEN STRIPED, SPECKLED, AND MULTI-COLOURED AND IS USED IN WATCH MAKING AS A DIAL. JASPER BELONGS TO THE MICROCRYSTALLINE CHALCEDONY FAMILY.
  • K

    KNOT

    A RAISED MINERAL INCLUSION IN A DIAMOND FOUND AT THE SURFACE.
  • KUNZITE

    A TRANSPARENT PINK OR LIGHT PURPLE GEMSTONE AND IS A VARIETY OF SPODUMENE. THE COLOUR OF SOME KUNZITE CAN BE ENHANCED BY IRRADIATION. KUNZITE HAS A HARDNESS OF 6-7 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 3.1 - 3.2.
  • L

    LABRADORITE

    A VARIETY OF PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR THAT HAS A GREYISH BACKGROUND WITH FLASHES OF COLOUR CALLED LABRADORESCENCE. IT IS USED AS WATCH DIALS. LABRADORITE HAS A HARDNESS OF 6 TO 6.5 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 2.70. FINNISH LABRADORITE IS ALSO KNOWN AS SPECTROLITE.
  • LAPIDARY

    A CRAFTSMAN WHO CUTS, POLISHES AND SELLS COLOURED AND PRECIOUS STONES. A LAPIDARY WHO SPECIALIZES IN DIAMONDS IS CALLED A DIAMOND-CUTTER.
  • LAPIS LAZULI

    A RICH BLUE OPAQUE GEMSTONE OFTEN USED IN WATCH DIALS. IT IS SPECKED WITH PYRITE THAT LOOKS LIKE GOLD. LAPIS HAS A HARDNESS OF 5.5; IT HAS A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 2.4 TO 2.9. LAPIS LAZULI IS NOT A MINERAL BUT A ROCK THAT CONTAINS THE MINERALS LAZURITE, CALCITE AND HAUYNITE
  • LATHE

    A MACHINE-TOOL THAT ROTATES A WORKPIECE WHILE APPLYING A CUTTING TOOL TO GIVE THE PIECE THE REQUIRED SHAPE. THE LATHE, WITH ITS MULTIPLE ACCESSORIES, IS THE TRADITIONAL WATCHMAKER'S MOST VERSATILE TOOL.
    THE LATHES MOST COMMONLY USED BY WATCHMAKERS ARE THE JACOT HAND LATHE FOR POLISHING PIVOTS:
    THE SCREW-CUTTING LATHE FOR MAKING THREADS;
    THE SCREW-HEAD LATHE FOR SHORTENING OR POLISHING A SCREW;
    THE CENTRE LATHE FOR SHAPING AND POLISHING WHEELS (FITTED WITH A DIVIDING PLATE IT WAS, IN THE PAST, USED TO DIVIDE AND CUT GEAR TEETH, SEE WHEEL-CUTTING ENGINE);
    AND THE FACE LATHE WHICH COMPLEMENTED THE CENTRE LATHE AS IT COULD TURN CERTAIN PARTS RIGHT TO THE CENTRE.
  • LEAF

    THE TOOTH ON A PINION.
  • LEAP YEAR CALENDAR

    THE LEAP YEAR CALENDAR TAKES AUTOMATICALLY INTO ACCOUNT MONTHS WITH LESS THAN 31 DAYS AND OF FEBRUARY, WHEN IT COUNTS 28 DAYS. IT MUST BE ADJUSTED EVERY FOURTH YEAR.
    SEE WATCHES WITH ASTRONOMICAL INDICATIONS.
    SEE LEAP YEAR.
  • LÉPINE WATCH (OPEN-FACE)


    IN A POCKET WATCH, A STRUCTURE IN WHICH THE SECONDS HAND IS POSITIONED IN LINE WITH THE WINDING STEM, AS OPPOSED TO THE HUNTER CALIBRE IN WHICH THE SECONDS HAND IS AT A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE WINDING STEM, AT 6 AND 3 O'CLOCK RESPECTIVELY.
  • LEVER

    PART OF A WATCH OR CLOCK ESCAPEMENT, MADE IN STEEL OR BRASS.
    THE LEVER, WHOSE FORM SUGGESTS A SHIP'S ANCHOR, HAS A DUAL FUNCTION: IT TRANSMITS ENERGY FROM THE SPRING VIA THE WHEELS TO THE BALANCE IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN ITS OSCILLATIONS. IT ALSO CONTROLS THE MOVEMENT OF THE WOUND GEARS.
  • LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED)

    A SEGMENTED LUMINOUS SOURCE USED TO DISPLAY NUMERALS ON ELECTRONIC DIGITAL WATCHES. OPERATED BY A PUSH-BUTTON.
  • LUG


    A THIN METAL ROD FIXED BETWEEN THE CASE HORNS FOR ATTACHING THE WATCH STRAP.
  • M

    MAINSPRING WINDER

    THE TOOL USED TO WIND THE MAINSPRING BEFORE INSERTING IT IN THE BARREL.
  • MALACHITE

    AN OPAQUE ORNAMENTAL STONE WITH STRIATIONS OF DEEP AND LIGHT GREEN- USED BY THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS IN JEWELLERY, TODAY IT IS SOMETIMES FOUND ON WATCH DIALS. MALACHITE HAS A HARDNESS OF 4 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 3.80.
  • MALTESE CROSS

    A DEVICE TO PREVENT OVERWINDING, COMPRISING A FINGER FIXED TO THE BARREL ARBOR AND A SMALL WHEEL IN THE SHAPE OF A MALTESE CROSS, MOUNTED ON THE BARREL COVER.
  • MANUFACTURE

    THE SWISS WATCH INDUSTRY USES THIS TERM TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN A COMPANY THAT MANUFACTURES A WATCH ALMOST IN ITS ENTIRETY AS OPPOSED TO FINISHING SHOPS WHICH ONLY ASSEMBLE AND TIME THE WATCH, AND FIT THE HANDS AND MOVEMENT, AND ÉTABLISSEURS.
  • MARCASITE

    MARCASITE IS A MISNOMER FOR PYRITE THAT HAS BEEN CUT IN SHINY METALLIC STONES. IT IS SOMETIMES FOUND ON WATCH BRACELETS AND CASES.
  • MARINE CHRONOMETER

    TRADITIONALLY, "MARINE CHRONOMETER" REFERS TO A LARGE WATCH FOR KEEPING TIME ONBOARD SHIP. IN THE LATTER YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, THE TERM WAS EXTENDED TO MEAN A TIMEPIECE:
    ALMOST ALWAYS WITH A DETENT ESCAPEMENT;
    WHOSE DIRECT-DRIVE SECONDS HAND JUMPS FORWARD EVERY HALF-SECOND;
    THAT IS HUNG IN GIMBALS SO AS TO MAINTAIN A HORIZONTAL POSITION REGARDLESS OF THE SHIP’S MOVEMENTS;
    USUALLY WITH A POWER RESERVE INDICATOR;
    AND PROTECTED FROM KNOCKS AND DAMP BY A WOODEN (GENERALLY MAHOGANY) CASE.
    THIS PRECISION INSTRUMENT'S MAIN FUNCTION IS TO DETERMINE LONGITUDE AT SEA. WHEN THE SHIP LEAVES PORT, ITS CHRONOMETER IS SET TO GREENWICH MEAN TIME. THE SHIP ALSO CARRIES SPECIAL TABLES (E.G. CONNAISSANCE DES TEMPS, NAUTICAL ALMANAC) WHICH INDICATE, FOR EACH DAY OF THE YEAR, THE TIME AT WHICH THE SUN AND CERTAIN STARS CROSS THE GREENWICH MERIDIAN. TO DETERMINE THE SHIP'S LONGITUDE, THE APPOINTED OFFICER CONSULTS THE CHRONOMETER TO NOTE THE TIME AT WHICH THE SUN OR A STAR CROSSES THE SHIP'S MERIDIAN. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THIS TIME AND THE TIME, GIVEN IN THE TABLES, AT WHICH THE SAME STAR OR THE SUN CROSSES THE GREENWICH MERIDIAN INDICATES THE LONGITUDE OF THE POINT OF OBSERVATION EAST OR WEST OF GREENWICH.
    SHIPS ALSO USE SMALLER WATCHES KNOWN AS SHIP'S CHRONOMETERS OR DECK WATCHES.
  • MARKER

    A SYMBOL THAT REPLACES SOME OR ALL OF THE NUMERALS ON A DIAL.
  • MARQUISE

    A CUT GEMSTONE WITH A BOAT LIKE SHAPE (55 FACETS); AN OVAL WITH TWO POINTED ENDS. THIS GEM CUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED A “NAVETTE”.
    ACCORDING TO THE LEGEND, THE TAILLE “NAVETTE” WAS CALLED “MARQUISE” BY THE KING LOUIS XIV IN HOMAGE TO THE MARQUISE OF POMPADOUR.
  • MELEE

    A SMALL DIAMOND THAT WEIGHS UNDER 1/5 CARAT OR 0.20 CARAT.
  • MOTHER-OF-PEARL

    NATURAL MOTHER-OF-PEARL IS THE IRIDESCENT SURFACE OF THE INSIDE OF CERTAIN SHELLS. IT IS USED AS WATCH DIALS GIVING BIG STAINLESS STEEL WATCHES A RICH APPEARANCE.
    SYNTHETIC MOTHER-OF-PEARL IS MADE FROM FISH SCALES AND HORN.
    MOTHER-OF-PEARL HAS OPALESCENT SHADES.
  • N

    NACRE

    THE IRIDESCENT SUBSTANCE SECRETED BY MOLLUSCS AROUND A FOREIGN OBJECT. PEARLS AND CULTURED PEARLS ARE COVERED WITH NACRE BY CERTAIN SPECIES OF OYSTERS AND MUSSELS.
  • NEPHRITE

    A FAMILY OF THE JADE GROUP OF ORNAMENTAL GEMSTONES. NEPHRITE IS SLIGHTLY SOFTER THAT JADEITE AND IS OFTEN VEINED.
  • O

    OIGNON (WATCH)

    A STYLE OF WATCH MADE IN FRANCE IN THE LATE SEVENTEENTH AND EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. ITS FAT, BULBOUS FORM SUGGESTS AN ONION. MOST OIGNON WATCHES FEATURED A CHASED BRASS CASE, VERY OCCASIONALLY IN SILVER AND ON VERY RARE OCCASIONS GOLD. IN LATER CENTURIES, OIGNON BECAME A FAMILIAR AND IRONIC TERM TO DESCRIBE A LARGE, THICK WATCH.
  • OILING

    A PROCESS USED FOR ENHANCING A GEMSTONE'S COLOUR AND TRANSPARENCY. GEMSTONES THAT HAVE FISSURES THAT TOUCH THE SURFACE ARE OFTEN OILED; EMERALDS ARE AN EXAMPLE.
  • ONYX

    A BLACK AGATE THAT IS OFTEN FOUND AS WATCH DIALS.
  • OPALE

    AN AMORPHOUS GEMSTONE THAT SHOWS THE SPECTRAL COLOURS CALLED FIRE ON EITHER A WHITE OR BLACK BACKGROUND. AN ORANGE VARIETY CALLED FIRE OPAL COMES FROM MEXICO AND DOES NOT ALWAYS HAVE THE FIRE OF THE OTHER VARIETIES. OPALS HAVE A HIGH WATER CONTENT - THEY CAN DRY OUT AND CRACK. THUS THEY ARE VERY DELICATE. OPALS HAVE A HARDNESS OF 5.5 TO 6.5 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 1.98-2.50
  • OPAQUE

    AN OPTICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN GEMSTONES THAT DO NOT TRANSMIT LIGHT EITHER DUE TO A VERY SATURATED COLOUR OR NUMEROUS INCLUSIONS.
  • ORGANIC

    DESCRIBES A SUBSTANCE PRODUCED BY A LIVING ORGANISM. PEARL, CORAL AND SHELL ARE EXAMPLES OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES USED IN JEWELLERY.
  • ORIENT

    THE IRIDESCENT LUSTRE OF A PEARL, SO-CALLED FOR ITS RAINBOW COLOURS. A PEARL IS JUDGED, AMONG OTHER CRITERIA, BY THE INTENSITY OF ITS ORIENT.
  • ORNAMENTAL GEMS

    ANY MICROCRYSTALLINE GEMSTONE. SOME EXAMPLES ARE: AGATE, ONYX, SODALITE, MALACHITE, ETC. THESE ORNAMENTAL STONES ARE MOSTLY USED FOR WATCH DIALS.
  • OSCILLATING WEIGHT (ROTOR)


    IN A SELF-WINDING MOVEMENT, A HEAVY METAL DISC THAT TURNS FREELY IN BOTH DIRECTIONS TO WIND THE MAINSPRING.
  • OVAL

    A BRILLIANT CUT WITH AN OVAL RATHER THAN ROUND GIRDLE (55 FACETS). INVENTED IN THE 1960S, IT IS INCREASINGLY POPULAR FOR SOLITAIRE ENGAGEMENT RINGS OR AS A CENTRE-STONE SURROUNDED BY TWO OTHER STONES.
  • P

    PADPARADSHA SAPPHIRE

    AN ORANGE COLOURED SAPPHIRE THAT HAS A PINK TONE. THE NAME PADPARADSHA COMES FROM THE SINHALESE WORD FOR LOTUS FLOWER.
  • PAILLON

    A TINY MOTIF CUT OUT OF GOLD OR SILVER AND USED TO DECORATE ENAMELWORK.
  • PAILLONNÉ ENAMEL

    ORNAMENTAL PAILLONS UNDER A LAYER OF TRANSPARENT ENAMEL (FONDANT).
  • PAINTING ON ENAMEL

    A SPECIALITY OF LIMOGES IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AND PERFECTED BY JEAN TOUTIN IN AROUND 1624, THIS STYLE OF PAINTING USES VITRIFIABLE COLOURS.
    A GOLD OR COPPER PLATE IS COATED WITH BASE ENAMEL THEN FIRED. THE COLOURS ARE IN POWDER FORM WHICH THE ENAMEL-PAINTER DILUTES AS AND WHEN THEY ARE NEEDED USING AN OILY OR SEMI-OILY ESSENCE, BEFORE APPLYING THEM WITH A FINE BRUSH. EACH COLOUR IS DRIED THEN FIRED BEFORE THE NEXT IS APPLIED. A PORTRAIT CAN BE FIRED NUMEROUS TIMES. MINIATURE PAINTING ON ENAMEL IS STILL USED TO DECORATE WATCH CASES AND IN PARTICULAR EXCEPTIONAL DIALS. SOME OF THE GREAT MASTER ENAMELLISTS WERE PETITOT (1630-1643), HENRY AND JEAN TOUTIN DU GUERNIER, PRIEUR, SIGNAC (BETWEEN 1643 AND 1685) AND HUAUD IN SWITZERLAND.
  • PALLET

    IN A LEVER ESCAPEMENT, A SMALL PARALLELEPIPED OF RUBY, SAPPHIRE OR GARNET, SET IN EACH OF THE LEVER'S ARMS; ONE IS THE ENTRANCE PALLET AND ONE IS THE EXIT PALLET.
  • PANTOGRAPH

    AN INSTRUMENT FOR COPYING DESIGNS ON AN IDENTICAL, REDUCED OR ENLARGED SCALE.
    IN 1841, GEORGES-AUGUSTE LESCHOT BEGAN WORKING WITH A PANTOGRAPH AT VACHERON CONSTANTIN. IT USED A MATRIX OR PATTERN TO PUNCH-MARK AND MILL IDENTICAL WATCH PLATES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS INTERCHANGEABLE MOVEMENT PARTS.
  • PAVÉ

    A GROUP OF GEMS SET CLOSELY TOGETHER TO COVER AN ENTIRE SURFACE.
  • PAWL (CLICK)

    A LEVER WITH A "BEAK" WHICH, ACTIVATED BY A SPRING, ENGAGES WITH THE TEETH OF A WHEEL, USUALLY TO ALLOW THE WHEEL TO TURN IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY.
  • PEAR SHAPE

    THE SECOND MOST POPULAR CUT AFTER THE ROUND BRILLIANT. THE PEAR (56 FACETS) IS A COMBINATION OF THE ROUND AND MARQUISE CUTS.
  • PEARL

    AN ORGANIC GEM MATERIAL FOUND IN OYSTERS AND MUSSELS. SINCE 1913, PEARLS ARE CULTURED MEANING THAT A NUCLEUS IS INSERTED IN A FARMED MOLLUSC. THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF CULTURED PEARLS: AKOYA CULTURED PEARLS, FRESHWATER CULTURED PEARLS, SOUTH SEA CULTURED PEARLS ARE SOME EXAMPLES.
  • R

    RACK

    A TOOTHED SEGMENT USED IN CERTAIN PASSING STRIKE MECHANISMS THAT DO NOT HAVE A COUNT WHEEL (LOCKING PLATE).
  • RADIANT CUT

    A GEMSTONE CUT THAT HAS 58 - 70 FACETS. IT HAS A RECTANGULAR SHAPE.
  • RAILROAD

    A MINUTE SCALE ON A DIAL THAT RESEMBLES A RAILWAY TRACK.
  • RATCHET

    A SAW-TOOTHED WHEEL.
    THE RATCHET WHEEL IN A WATCH IS A TOOTHED WHEEL THAT IS FIXED BY A SQUARE HOLE TO THE BARREL ARBOR. A CLICK (PAWL) PREVENTS THE RATCHET WHEEL FROM TURNING IN THE UNWINDING DIRECTION.
    IN A STRIKING MECHANISM, THE HOUR-RATCHET OR HOUR-RACK IS A TOOTHED SECTOR THAT LIFTS THE HAMMER TO STRIKE THE HOURS.
  • RED DIAMOND

    A RARE FANCY DIAMOND THAT IS QUITE VALUABLE.
  • REFRACTION

    THE BENDING OF A LIGHT RAY WHEN IN ENTERS AN OPTICALLY DENSER MEDIUM AT AN ANGLE.
  • REFRACTIVE INDEX

    THE RATIO OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN AIR AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN AN OPTICALLY DENSER MEDIUM. EACH GEMSTONE HAS A SPECIFIC REFRACTIVE INDEX THAT, WHEN LEGIBLE, CAN IDENTIFY IT.
  • REFRACTOMETER

    AN INSTRUMENT THAT MEASURES THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF A GEMSTONE.
  • REGULATING PARTS

    THE REGULATING ORGAN (BALANCE AND SPRING) WITH THE ESCAPEMENT.
  • REGULATOR

    A CLOCK WITH NON-COAXIAL HOUR AND MINUTE HANDS.
    THE SIZE OF THE HANDS AND THEIR POSITION REFLECT THEIR IMPORTANCE: THE MINUTE HAND IS ALWAYS THE LARGER AND IS POSITIONED IN THE CENTRE OF THE DIAL.
    OBSERVATORIES AND MANUFACTURES ONCE REFERRED TO HIGHLY PRECISE REGULATORS, ALSO KNOWN AS PARENT CLOCKS, TO SET THEIR WATCHES TO TIME.
  • S

    SAPPHIRE

    SAPPHIRE IS A PRECIOUS GEMSTONE (A TYPE OF CORUNDUM) THAT RANGES IN COLOUR FROM BLUE TO PINK TO YELLOW TO GREEN TO WHITE TO PURPLE (MAUVE SAPPHIRE) TO PINK-ORANGE (PADPARADSCHA SAPPHIRE). SIX-SIDED ASTERISMS SOMETIMES OCCUR IN STAR SAPPHIRES (CAUSED BY INCLUSIONS OF TINY, THIN, PARALLEL NEEDLES OF RUTILE). SAPPHIRES ARE RELATED TO RUBIES. SAPPHIRE HAS A HARDNESS OF 9 AND A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 3.9 - 4.1. SAPPHIRES ARE OFTEN HEAT TREATED TO IMPROVE THEIR COLOUR.
  • SECULAR PERPETUAL CALENDAR

    DEVISED TO INCORPORATE THE SPECIFICITIES OF THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR. IT IS PERPETUAL BECAUSE IT AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTS TO MONTHS WITH 30 DAYS AND TO THE 28 OR 29 DAYS IN FEBRUARY. UNLIKE THE PERPETUAL CALENDAR IT IS ALSO AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTED FOR THE EXCEPTIONNALLY NON-LEAP YEAR YEARS, THE NEXT BEING 2100 ET 2200.
    SEE WATCHES WITH ASTRONOMICAL INDICATIONS.
  • SELF-WINDING (AUTOMATIC)

    DESCRIBES A MECHANISM THAT WINDS THE MAINSPRING BY USING THE MOVEMENT OF THE ARM TO CAUSE A ROTOR TO ROTATE AND WHICH, VIA SPECIFIC GEARS, WINDS THE MAINSPRING.
  • SETTING

    THE TECHNIQUE USED TO SECURE A STONE SO AS TO REVEAL ITS QUALITIES TO FULL ADVANTAGE.
    THE MAIN TYPES OF SETTING:
    BEZEL OR COLLET SETTING
    BULK SETTING
    PRONG OR CLAW SETTING
    INVISIBLE SETTING
    MYSTERY SETTING
    SNOW SETTING
    ROCK SETTING
  • SHIP'S CHRONOMETER

    A LARGE WATCH (45MM TO 65MM DIAMETER), KNOWN ALSO AS A DECK WATCH.
  • SHOCK ABSORBER

    A RESILIENT BEARING TO DAMPEN SHOCKS ON THE BALANCE-STAFF PIVOTS.
    ALSO KNOWN AS SHOCKPROOFING. THE MAJORITY OF WATCHES TODAY USE THE INCABLOC® SYSTEM.
  • SKELETON

    A MOVEMENT WHOSE PLATE AND BRIDGES HAVE BEEN CUT AWAY TO EXPOSE THE WHEELS, LEAVING ONLY THE SUBSTANCE WHICH THE WATCH NEEDS TO FUNCTION. THE MOVEMENT IS PLACED BETWEEN TWO SAPPHIRE CRYSTALS TO BE SEEN.
  • SKELETON MOVEMENT

    A MOVEMENT WHOSE PLATE AND BRIDGES HAVE BEEN CUT AWAY TO EXPOSE THE WHEELS, LEAVING ONLY THE SUBSTANCE WHICH THE WATCH NEEDS TO FUNCTION. THE MOVEMENT IS PLACED BETWEEN TWO SAPPHIRE CRYSTALS TO BE SEEN.
  • SLIDE

    IN A REPEATER WATCH, A PART MADE FROM THE SAME METAL AS THE CASE AND WHICH SLIDES ALONG THE CASE MIDDLE TO WIND THE SPRING OF THE STRIKING MECHANISM. A SILENT-SLIDE PREVENTS THE MECHANISM FROM STRIKING.
  • SMOKY QUARTZ

    SMOKY QUARTZ IS THE BROWN VARIETY OF MONO CRYSTALLINE QUARTZ.
  • T

    TABLE

    THE TABLE IS THE LARGE, FLAT FACET AREA ON THE TOP OF A CUT GEMSTONE.
  • TACHYMETER

    AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING SPEED.
    IN WATCHMAKING, A CHRONOGRAPH OR SPORTS COUNTER WITH A SCALE FOR READING SPEED IN KILOMETRES PER HOUR (KPH) OR ANOTHER UNIT.
  • TAHITIAN CULTURED PEARL

    A BLACK SOUTH SEA CULTURED PEARL THAT IS THE ONLY ONE THAT IS A NATURALLY COLOURED. THEY ARE PRODUCED BY THE LARGE, BLACK-LIPPED PEARL OYSTER PINCTADA MARGARITIFERA; A MOLLUSC FOUND IN THE TROPICAL INDO-PACIFIC OCEAN. BLACK PEARLS COME IN BLACK, BROWN AND GREY WITH PASTEL OVERTONES.
  • TANZANITE

    A TRANSPARENT, BLUE-VIOLET TYPE OF ZOISITE RESEMBLING SAPPHIRE. THARDNESS OF 6; SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF 3.35.
  • TAPESTRY PATTERN

    A PATTERN OF REPETITIVE MOTIFS, SIMILAR TO A TAPESTRY. A DIE OF THIS MOTIF GUIDES THE MOVEMENT OF THE TOOL ON A SPECIALLY-ADAPTED ROSE ENGINE.
  • TELEMETER

    A CHRONOGRAPH OR SUBDIAL FEATURING A TELEMETER SCALE WITH WHICH TO MEASURE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN AN EVENT AND AN OBSERVER BASED ON THE SPEED OF SOUND.
  • TIME ZONE

    IN ORDER TO STANDARDISE TIME MEASUREMENT IN EACH COUNTRY, SINCE 1883 THE EARTH HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO TWENTY-FOUR TIME ZONES, THE FIRST OF WHICH IS INTERSECTED BY THE GREENWICH MERIDIAN, WHICH IS THE PRIME OR ZERO MERIDIAN. EACH POINT WITHIN A GIVEN TIME ZONE HAS THE SAME LEGAL TIME.
  • TOOTH

    A PROJECTION ON THE EDGE OF A GEAR, ESCAPEMENT WHEEL, RATCHET WHEEL, ETC.
  • TOURBILLON

    A SYSTEM DEVISED AND PATENTED BY ABRAHAM-LOUIS BREGUET IN 1801 TO COMPENSATE FOR ERRORS OF RATE CAUSED BY THE EARTH'S GRAVITATIONAL FORCE IN UPRIGHT POSITIONS. THE ESCAPEMENT IS MOUNTED IN A REVOLVING CAGE WITH THE REGULATING ORGAN (BALANCE) AT THE CENTRE.
    THE ESCAPE-WHEEL PINION TURNS ABOUT THE FIXED FOURTH WHEEL. THE CAGE GENERALLY REVOLVES ONCE A MINUTE AND, IN DOING SO, COMPENSATES FOR ERRORS OF RATE CAUSED BY THE VERTICAL POSITION IN WHICH POCKET WATCHES SPEND MOST OF THEIR TIME.
    THIS DELICATE AND COMPLEX STRUCTURE IS ONE OF WATCHMAKING'S MOST INGENIOUS MECHANISMS. A SIMPLIFIED AND MORE ROBUST ALTERNATIVE IS THE KARUSSEL WHERE THE CAGE IS DRIVEN NOT BY THE FOURTH WHEEL BUT BY THE THIRD WHEEL. A TOURBILLON CAN CONTAIN A LEVER OR A DETENT ESCAPEMENT.
  • TROTTEUSE

    A SECONDS HAND, MOUNTED EITHER IN THE CENTRE OF THE MAIN DIAL OR IN A SUBSIDIARY DIAL.
  • U

    ULTRA-COMPLICATED WATCH

    ANY FUNCTION OTHER THAN THE INDICATION OF HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE MECHANISM IS HAND-WOUND OR SELF-WINDING, MECHANICAL OR ELECTRONIC, AND OF MOVEMENT HEIGHT. THE TOURBILLON AND THE SELF-WINDING SYSTEM ARE CONSIDERED TO BE COMPLICATIONS EVEN THOUGH THEY DO NOT FALL WITHIN THE GENERIC DEFINITION.
    FAR FROM BEING A PASSING FAD, COMPLICATIONS WERE INSTRUMENTAL IN THE REDISCOVERY OF THE WATCHMAKER'S ART IN THE 1980S AND HAVE CONTINUED TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRADITIONAL WRISTWATCH. COMPLICATIONS FALL INTO TWO CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO WHETHER THEY ARE OR ARE NOT RELATED TO TIMEKEEPING.
    COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO TIMEKEEPING
    1 ACOUSTICAL
    ◦ TIME SIGNAL
    ◦ ALARM
    ◦ QUARTER REPEATER
    ◦ TEN-MINUTE REPEATER
    ◦ HALF-QUARTER REPEATER
    ◦ FIVE-MINUTE REPEATER
    ◦ MINUTE REPEATER
    ◦ PASSING HOUR AND HALF-HOUR STRIKE
    ◦ GRANDE SONNERIE
    ◦ PETITE SONNERIE
    ◦ SILENCER
    2 SILENT
    ◦ "A TOC" DUMB REPEATER
    ◦ "A TACT"
    3 ASTRONOMICAL INDICATIONS
    ◦ SIMPLE CALENDAR (FULL OR PARTIAL)
    ◦ SIMPLE ANNUAL CALENDAR (FULL OR PARTIAL)
    ◦ "PERPETUAL" CALENDAR
    ◦ WEEK NUMBER
    ◦ YEAR
    ◦ EQUATION OF TIME
    ◦ SUNRISE AND SUNSET FOR A GIVEN LOCATION
    ◦ SIDEREAL TIME
    ◦ DECLINATION OF THE SUN
    ◦ APPARENT MOVEMENT OF THE PLANETS
    ◦ LINE OF NODE
    ◦ STAR CHART FOR A GIVEN LOCATION
    4 MEASURE OF SHORT TIMES
    ◦ DEAD SECONDS
    ◦ INDEPENDENT SECONDS
    ◦ CHRONOGRAPH – CHRONOSCOPE
    ▪ SIMPLE
    ▪ WITH HOUR AND MINUTE TOTALISERS
    ▪ WITH ONE SCALE:
    ▪ TACHYMETRIC (SPEED OVER A GIVEN INTERVAL)
    ▪ TELEMETRIC (ESTIMATED DISTANCE BASED ON THE SPEED OF SOUND)
    ▪ ASTHOMETRIC (NUMBER OF BREATHS PER MINUTE)
    ▪ PULSIMETRIC (NUMBER OF HEARTBEATS PER MINUTE)
    ▪ WITH MULTIPLE SCALES
    ▪ WITH SPLIT SECONDS
    ▪ WITH MONO-RATRAPPANTE
    ◦ COMPLICATIONS BY CONCEPT AND PRODUCTION (EXTENDED DEFINITION)
    ▪ TOURBILLON
    ▪ SELF-WINDING
    ◦ COMPLICATIONS INSPIRED BY EVERYDAY LIFE
    ▪ WORLD TIME
    ▪ UNIVERSAL TIME
    ▪ MULTIPLE TIME ZONES
    ▪ REGATTA DIAL
    ▪ DIVING DIAL
    ▪ TIDE GAUGE
    ▪ ORIENTEERING DIAL
    ▪ FLY-BACK CHRONOGRAPH
    ▪ POWER RESERVE INDICATOR
    ◦ ULTRA-COMPLICATED WATCHES
    COMPLICATIONS NOT RELATED TO TIMEKEEPING
    • BAROMETER
    • COMPASS
    • ALTIMETER
    • ALTIMÈTRE
    • DEPTH GAUGE
    • SLIDE RULE
  • UNDER-DIAL WORK

    COLLECTIVE TERM FOR THE MECHANISMS, SUCH AS FOR STRIKING, A CALENDAR OR MOTIONWORK, BETWEEN THE DIAL AND THE DIAL PLATE.
  • UNIVERSAL (WATCH WITH UNIVERSAL HOURS)

    A WATCH WHOSE DIAL SHOWS THE TIME OF PLACES IN DIFFERENT TIME ZONES.
  • V

    VIBRATION

    MOVEMENT OF A PENDULUM OR OSCILLATING BODY BETWEEN TWO EXTREME POSITIONS (A' AND A'').
    THE BALANCE OF A MECHANICAL WATCH GENERALLY MAKES FIVE VIBRATIONS PER SECOND, EQUIVALENT TO 18,000 VIBRATIONS/HOUR (2.5 HZ). A MORE ACCURATE MECHANICAL WATCH MAKES 10 VIBRATIONS PER SECOND OR 36,000 VIBRATIONS/HOUR (5HZ). A QUARTZ WATCH MAKES 64,000 VIBRATIONS PER SECOND ( 32 MHZ).
    AN OSCILLATION (« TICK-TOCK ») EQUALS TWO VIBRATIONS (ALTHOUGH OSCILLATION IS SOMETIMES INCORRECTLY USED TO REFER TO A VIBRATION).
  • W

    WATCH

    A PORTABLE TIMEPIECE THAT FUNCTIONS IN ALL POSITIONS.
    A WATCH COMPRISES THREE ESSENTIAL PARTS:
    • THE MOVEMENT MADE UP OF THE DIFFERENT MECHANICAL COMPONENTS REQUIRED TO KEEP THE TIME.
    • THE CASE WHICH PROTECTS THE MOVEMENT.
    • THE DIAL AND HANDS WHICH INDICATE THE TIME.
    A WATCH CAN BE WORN IN VARIOUS WAYS: POCKET WATCH, WRISTWATCH, BROOCH WATCH, ETC.
  • WATER CLOCK

    WATER CLOCK: CLEPSYDRA WITH A SYSTEM OF GEARS.
  • WHEEL

    A CIRCULAR COMPONENT THAT ROTATES AROUND AN AXIS AND WHOSE FUNCTION IS TO TRANSMIT POWER OR MOTION.
  • WHEEL-CUTTING ENGINE

    A MACHINE FOR CUTTING THE REQUIRED NUMBER OF TEETH INTO AN UNFINISHED GEAR AFTER MARKING THE POSITION OF EACH TOOTH WITH A DIVIDING PLATE.
  • WORLD TIME

    DESCRIBES A WATCH THAT INDICATES, USUALLY BY MEANS OF SUBDIALS SURROUNDING THE MAIN DIAL, LOCAL TIME (TRUE SOLAR TIME) IN DIFFERENT WORLD CITIES. OFTEN THESE CITIES WERE CHOSEN FOR THEIR POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE PRIOR TO 1883 WHEN UNIVERSAL TIME WAS INTRODUCED.
  • Y

    YEAR

    A FOUR-DIGIT INDICATION OF THE CURRENT YEAR THAT CHANGES AUTOMATICALLY AT MIDNIGHT ON DECEMBER 31ST.
  • Z

    ZODIAC

    AT THE HEART OF COUNTLESS LEGENDS AND BELIEFS, SINCE ANCIENT TIMES PRECIOUS STONES HAVE HAD SYMBOLIC VALUE. FROM THE JEWS TO THE EGYPTIANS, EACH CULTURE AND RELIGION HAS GIVEN A DIFFERENT MEANING TO STONES. THE VIRTUES ASCRIBED TO STONES HAVE COME DOWN THROUGH THE CENTURIES AND CULTURES. WE CONTINUE TO ASSOCIATE GEMSTONES WITH PARTICULAR PLANETS, SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC OR THE FOUR ELEMENTS. STONES HAVE DIFFERENT ASSOCIATIONS FOR DIFFERENT CULTURES. THE ONES GIVEN HERE ARE THOSE OF WESTERN CIVILISATIONS.
    STONES ASSOCIATED WITH EACH SIGN OF THE ZODIAC:
    • ARIES: RED JASPER, RED CORNELIAN
    • TAURUS: ORANGE CORNELIAN, PINK QUARTZ
    • GEMINI: CITRINE, TIGER'S EYE
    • CANCER: GREEN AVENTURINE, CHRYSOPRASE
    • LEO: ROCK CRYSTAL, PINK QUARTZ
    • VIRGO: YELLOW AGATE, YELLOW CITRINE
    • LIBRA: YELLOW CITRINE, SMOKE QUARTZ
    • SCORPIO: BLOOD-RED CORNELIAN, SARD
    • SAGITTARIUS: BLUE QUARTZ, CHALCEDONY
    • CAPRICORN: ONYX, CAT'S-EYE QUARTZ
    • AQUARIUS: FALCON'S EYE, TURQUOISE
    • PISCES: AMETHYST
    STONES ASSOCIATED WITH EACH MONTH (BIRTHSTONES):
    • JANUARY: GARNET
    • FEBRUARY: AMETHYST
    • MARCH: AQUAMARINE
    • APRIL: DIAMOND
    • MAY: EMERALD
    • JUNE: PEARL
    • JULY: RUBY
    • AUGUST: PERIDOT
    • SEPTEMBER: SAPPHIRE
    • OCTOBER: OPAL
    • NOVEMBER: TOPAZ
    • DECEMBER: TURQUOISE
    STONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PLANETS:
    • SUN: CHRYSOBERYL, DIAMOND
    • MOON: MOONSTONE, EMERALD, PEARL
    • MARS: RED GARNET, RUBY
    • MERCURY: YELLOW SAPPHIRE, TOPAZ
    • JUPITER: AMETHYST, LAPIS-LAZULI, BLUE SAPPHIRE
    • VÉNUS : SAPHIR PADPARADSCHA (ROSE ORANGÉ), HYACINTHE (ZIRCON JAUNE-ROUGE)
    • SATURN: AQUAMARINE, BLUE SPINEL
    STONES AND SYMBOLS:
    • DIAMOND THE DIAMOND IS SAID TO CONFER POWER. IT BRINGS JOY AND PURITY, STRENGTHENS THE HEART AND HELPS WITH CHILDBIRTH. IT IS ALSO CALLED REGINA GEMMARUM, THE "QUEEN OF GEMS." THE GREEKS CALLED THE DIAMOND ADAMAS, MEANING INVINCIBLE. IT IS A SYMBOL OF PERFECTION AND UNADULTERATED PURITY.
    • EMERALD DEDICATED TO VENUS, THE EMERALD SYMBOLISES PURITY AND HOPE. EMERALD IS SAID TO PRESERVE THE CHASTITY OF WHOEVER WEARS IT, AS IT WILL BREAK IF HE OR SHE SHOULD COMMIT AN IMMORAL ACT. IN THE MIDDLE AGES, EMERALD WAS SAID TO RENDER SNAKES BLIND. IT WAS ALSO BELIEVED TO WARD OFF DISEASES SUCH AS EPILEPSY AND MALARIA. ANCIENT STONE-CUTTERS CLAIMED THAT EMERALD COULD DIVERT STORMS AND WOULD HELP SLAVES RECOVER THEIR FREEDOM. ITS VIRTUES WERE SUPPOSEDLY MULTIPLIED IN SPRING, WHEN EVERYTHING TURNS GREEN.
    • RUBY A SYMBOL OF FAITH, THE RUBY BRINGS GLORY, CALM AND PATIENCE. IT PROTECTS AGAINST SERIOUS INFECTIONS, WARDS OFF THE PLAGUE, BANISHES NIGHTMARES AND CHASES AWAY EVIL THOUGHTS.
    • SAPPHIRE SAPPHIRE TAKES ITS NAME FROM THE HEBREW SAPIR MEANING "THING OF BEAUTY." ASSOCIATED WITH LOVE AND CONTEMPLATION, SAPPHIRE IS APHRODITE'S STONE. THIS BLUE STONE ENCOURAGES FIDELITY AND DRIVES AWAY HATRED. LIKE THE OTHER PRECIOUS STONES, SAPPHIRE HAS INSPIRED NUMEROUS LEGENDS AND BELIEFS. IN THE ORIENT, IT WAS SAID TO STRIKE DEAD ANY VENOMOUS ANIMAL. ITS POWER WAS THOUGHT TO BE SO STRONG THAT SIMPLY LOOKING AT A SAPPHIRE WAS A BLESSING FOR THE FUTURE. IN EUROPE, BOTH MEN OF GOD AND SATAN'S MINIONS BELIEVED THE SAPPHIRE WOULD CONFER THE GIFT OF PROPHESY TO WHOMEVER POSSESSED ONE. THE SAPPHIRE WAS ALSO USED AS A TALISMAN TO WARD OFF THE PLAGUE AND OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES. THE EGYPTIANS BELIEVED IT CONTROLLED THE MOVEMENT OF THE STARS.
  • FONDATION DE LA HAUTE HORLOGERIE ALL TEXTS & TERMS IN THIS GLOSSARY ARE THE PROPERTY OF © 2016 FHH. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR MORE INFORMATION VISIT HTTPS://WWW.HAUTEHORLOGERIE.ORG
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